Directions: Choose the underlined word or phrase of each item that is ungrammatical
ข้อ 19. Beijing’s spats with Washington is not to be ignored, yet neither are they game changing
1. is 2. ignored 3. yet 4. changing
ข้อ 20. General reference maps include basic information, such continents, countries, rivers, cities, and other features.
1. reference maps 2. information 3. such continents 4. features
ข้อ 21. The Energy Ministry is pressing by environmental and ethnic minorities advocacy groups not to set up a neutral body to organize public scrutiny of a hydro-power dam project inside Burma on the Salween River.
1. is pressing 2. not to set up 3. to organize 4. inside Burma
Directions: Read the following passages and choose the best answer.
Herbal medicines enjoy a good reputation due to diverse positive factors including efficacy and a general risk of low or even no toxicity. This seems to assure a therapeutic benefit without and associated risks. Is it then necessary to do toxicity testing on all herbal drugs, specially those with long-documented clinical use? The opinions are divided and even W.H.O. says that regulatory intervention may not be needed in the case of a drug with long traditional use and no reported side effects unless some new observations warrant it (WHO, 1991). In most countries, however, varying amounts of safety data have to be generated regarding the safety of a herbal drug. The amount may vary from country to country.
An additional cause of safety concern in herbal drugs is the possibility of the presence of contaminants (e.g. aflatoxins), pesticide residue, etc., which may produce toxic symptoms totally unrelated to the pharmacological activity of the herbal drug (De Smet, 1991)
The toxicological risk can be evaluated by animal experiments. Extrapolation to man is complex but is generally possible on the basis of animal data so generated and the acceptance or rejection of the risk of a product depends on balancing this against its utility of value
The basic pattern of toxicity studies with various classes of compounds is essentially similar. The goal of toxicology studies is to provide the information necessary to judge the safety of a product. In all toxicological experiments there is an obvious need to exaggerate dose, study chemical administration over long periods and to employ routes of administration intended for human use in addition to other routes.
ข้อ 22. The phrase “regulatory intervention” refers to _______.
1. new observation 2. toxicity testing 3. the report on the side effect 4. the assurance of a 5therapeutic benefit
ข้อ 23. “Extrapolation” can be replaced by _____________.